There are several potential causes for reduced yield from a domestic or commercial water borehole. These may include, but are not limited to:
- Mechanical Blockage: mechanical blockage occurs when small soil particles or by-products from the well-wall build up and cause blockages or reduced flow.
- Chemical Encrustation: essentially the chemical version of a mechanical blockage, chemical encrustation occurs when chemical deposits build up on the good screen or gravel pack and restrict the flow of water.
- Bacteriological Plugging: Bacteria and other microorganisms can also clog a borehole.
To rehabilitate a borehole will vary depending on the nature of the cause for the blockage or reduced flow, the following steps constitute a brief overview of the traditional steps borehole rehabilitation could or would necessitate:
- A survey of the borehole will be undertaken first – the surveyor may ask you questions such as depth, yield, diameter, and tests.
- The pumping mechanism and/or other removable parts will be cleaned with a chlorine solution.
- The borehole will be drained of all water and will be thoroughly cleaned of all sediment and debris.
- Any damage to the inside of the borehole will be repaired. If the damage is too extensive, the borehole may be re-lined as opposed to simply repaired/patched.
- The well itself will now be cleaned with chlorinated water.
- Should the borehole/well require chemical cleaning it will take place at this juncture. If the well needs to be chemically cleaned the process could take anywhere from 1 to 3 days and will mean the well needs to be dewatered thereafter to remove the chemicals and chemical residue.
- The well/borehole will be disinfected. Chlorination is the most common method of disinfection undertaken.
- Post chlorination the well/borehole will need to be dewatered. The water will be tested until chlorine levels are back below 0.5mg per liter.
- The well/borehole will be resealed.
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